InternetPeriscope's Subnet Calculator can help you calculate subnet masks and ranges of IP addresses.
In this example, our user has just setup her company's office with a new ISP. The ISP has told her that her address range is 188.8.131.52/25. She uses the Subnet Calculator tool to determine what this means. Later in the example, she uses the Subnet Calculator Tool to further subdivide her network in order to reduce network congestion from Broadcast traffic.
To run the Subnet Calculator Tool, she clicks on the Tools menu, and clicks on the "Subnet Calculator..." menu item, as shown in the figure below.
She enters her IP address, 184.108.40.206 into the IP Address control. She then clicks once on the up-down control to set the number of network bits to "/25", the value her ISP specified.
The dialog above shows the following:
- If she does not further subnet her IP address range, she should set the subnet mask on all of her computers to 255.255.255.128
- Her ISP has given her part of a Class C address space.
- The network address is 220.127.116.11. Routing tables store the "route" to this network using the network address. Routing tables are used by software such as RIP and OSPF.
- Without using a NAT server or proxy server, she can setup up to 126 machines with unique addresses (she will probably need to use one of these addresses as her router address, depending on her setup).
- The broadcast address is 18.104.22.168. If she sends a message to this address, it will be broadcasted to all of the machines in that subnet.
- The first usable host address is 22.214.171.124. Most admins assign this to the router that connects their site to their ISP. They then configure their client machines to use this address as a default gateway.
- For this network, the administrator should only configure machines with IP addresses in the range 126.96.36.199 - 188.8.131.52.
The administrator wishes to further subnet her IP address range. She wishes to do this to decrease broadcast traffic. This will give her users faster network performance.
Currently, her company has two departments, each with 20 computers. She wishes to create a separate subnet for each of these departments, giving each department room for future growth. She plays around with the Subnet Calculator, and comes up with the following:
- She will create two subnets, each with 30 IP addresses.
- The first subnet will have the IP address range 184.108.40.206 - 220.127.116.11. She has decided to use the first address, 18.104.22.168, as the default gateway (router address) for this subnet.
- Hosts on both networks will use the subnet mask 255.255.255.224