Biology Flash Cards

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Biology Definitions

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NeuraminidaseAn enzyme that cleaves sialic acid groups from glycoproteins. Some viruses, like influenza, bind to sialic acid receptors on the host cell. Neuraminidases can prevent this viral infection by cleaving this receptor. Note that influenza virus uses a neuraminidase when it "escapes" from the host cell. Ironically, neuraminidase can be used to prevent influenza infection (the virus can't enter the cell), and neuraminidase inhibitors can be used to treat an influenza infection (the virus cannot escape the cell).Virus
Non-Coding StrandDuring RNA Transcription, the DNA strand that is read during RNA Polymerization is called the "Non-Coding Strand". Note that the sequence of bases in the RNA actually match the bases in the opposite "Coding Strand" (except that Uracil replaces Thymine). This Non-Coding Strand is also known as the "Transcribed Strand". Non-Coding Strand, Coding Strand, RNA, Transcription
Non-Parental TypeAn individual receives a copy of a particular homologous chromosome from each parent. The individual will pass only one of these two homologous chromosomes on to a given offspring. Generally, these chromosomes are passed on unchanged to the children. Sometimes, the two homologous chromosomes will exchange genetic material in a "crossover", resulting in a child which has a Non-Parental Type (the child's chromosome is not an exact copy of one of its parent's chromosome, but is instead a combination of both).Chromosome, Recombination Rate, Genetic Map
Non-Transcribed StrandDuring RNA Transcription, the DNA strand opposite the strand that is being read is called the "Non-Transcribed Strand". Note that the RNA molecule that is polymerized has bases that match the non-transcribed strand, except that Uracil (U) replaces Thymine (T). The Non-Transcribed Strand is also called the "Coding Strand".Transcribe, RNA, DNA, Transcribed Strand, Coding Strand, Non-Coding Strand
Nuclear Pore ComplexA large pore in the nucleus, consisting of as many as one hundred proteins, which allows Importin to transfer their cargo protein into the nucleus. The Nuclear Pore Complex is permeable to ions, but not to proteins, unless they are carried on Importin. The nucleus is studded with many of these pores.Importin, Protein, Nucleus
NucleoidThe section of a prokaryotic cell that contains DNA. The nucleoid of a prokartyotic cell is similar in function to the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, but the nucleoid does not have a membrane that separates its contents from the cytoplasm of the cell.Nucleus, Prokaryote, Eukaryote, Cytoplasm
NucleosideA compound consisting of a sugar (usually ribose or deoxyribose) and a purine or pyrimidine base. In DNA, the bases are A,T, C, and G; in RNA, the bases are A,U,C, and G. It does not have a Triphosphate which differentiates it from a Nucleotide.Nucleotide, Base, Ribose, Deoxyribose, Purine, Pyrimidine, DNA, RNA
NucleotideAn organic compound consisting of a nucleoside and one or more phosphate groups. The energy of the Triphosphate group is used to form polymer chains via a dehydration reaction which breaks off two of the Phosphates. In DNA and RNA, the phosphate of one nucleotide joins to the sugar of the next nucleotide to form the backbone. Nucleoside, DNA, RNA, Phosphate Group

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